What is the gravest form of pregnancy induced hypertension

What is the gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension?

What is the gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension?

Pregnancy-induced hypertension is a condition in which a woman’s blood pressure rises as a result of her pregnancy. It’s also known as “PIH.” If your blood pressure was previously normal but began to rise after the 20th week of pregnancy, you may have PIH. Having high blood pressure isn’t the only symptom of PIH. Many of your body’s organs could be affected by PIH.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension has a severe variant, in case you didn’t know or believed this issue ended there.

You will learn about the most severe kind of pregnancy-induced hypertension in this post.

Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

PIH (pregnancy-induced hypertension) is a type of elevated blood pressure that occurs during pregnancy. It affects roughly 7% to 10% of all pregnancies. Toxemia or preeclampsia are other terms for pregnancy-induced hypertension. It is especially common in young women who are pregnant for the first time.

It occurs more frequently in twin pregnancies and in women who have already had PIH. If your blood pressure was previously normal but began to rise after the 20th week of pregnancy, you may have PIH.

This condition usually has three basic characteristics, which are as follows:

  • A blood pressure result of 140/90 mm Hg or a considerable increase in one or both readings indicates excessive blood pressure.
  • Edema (swelling)
  • Protein in the urine

What causes pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)?

Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is caused by a variety of factors.

PIH has an unknown cause. Some conditions, such as the ones listed below, can increase the likelihood of having PIH:

  • Diabetes
  • PIH with a previous pregnancy
  • Mother’s age younger than 20 or older than 40
  • Multiple fetuses (twins, triplets)
  • Pre-existing hypertension (high blood pressure)
  • Kidney disease

What are the signs and symptoms of hypertension caused by pregnancy?

The most common signs and symptoms of high blood pressure during pregnancy are listed below. However, each woman may have distinct symptoms. Among the signs and symptoms are:

  • Nausea, vomiting
  • Right-sided upper abdominal pain or pain around the stomach
  • Urinating small amounts
  • Changes in liver or kidney function tests
  • Increased blood pressure
  • Protein in the urine
  • Edema (swelling)
  • Sudden weight gain
  • visual changes such as blurred or double vision

What is the gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension?

The gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension is eclampsia. Eclampsia is a severe form of hypertension caused by pregnancy. Women with eclampsia experience seizures as a result of their disease. Eclampsia affects roughly one in every 1,600 pregnancies and usually appears near the end of the pregnancy.

Eclampsia is a result of Preeclampsia (formerly called toxemia). Eclampsia is when pregnant women have high blood pressure, protein in their urine, and swelling in their legs, feet, and hands.

Preeclampsia can only be cured by giving birth or delivering the fetus. Preeclampsia symptoms can linger for up to 6 weeks following birth.

A complication of severe preeclampsia or eclampsia is HELLP syndrome. The HELLP syndrome is a collection of physical alterations that include red blood cell breakdown, hepatic problems, and low platelet counts (cells found in the blood that are needed to help the blood to clot in order to control bleeding).

If left untreated, HELLP syndrome is a liver and blood condition that can be fatal. The symptoms of HELLP syndrome are wide-ranging and ambiguous, making it difficult to diagnose at first. The acronym HELLP syndrome refers to three primary abnormalities discovered after the initial lab investigation.

These include:

H: Hemolysis

The disintegration of red blood cells is referred to as hemolysis. Hemolysis is a condition in which red blood cells are broken down prematurely and too quickly. Low red blood cell numbers may follow, which can lead to anemia, a condition in which the blood does not carry enough oxygen to the rest of the body.

EL: elevated liver enzymes

When your liver enzymes are elevated, it means your liver isn’t working properly. When your liver cells are inflamed or wounded, they leak a lot of chemicals into your blood, including enzymes.

LP: low platelet count

Platelets are blood components that aid in the clotting process. When platelet levels are low, you’re more likely to bleed excessively.

HELLP syndrome is a very rare condition that affects less than 1% of all pregnancies. It is, however, a serious health risk that can endanger both the mother and the unborn child. For the best results, prompt treatment and delivery of the infant are usually essential.

Why should you be concerned about pregnancy-induced hypertension?

The resistance of blood arteries increases in people with high blood pressure. Many organ systems in the expecting mother’s body, including the liver, kidneys, brain, uterus, and placenta, may be hampered as a result of this.

Other issues that may arise as a result of PIH are listed below. In some pregnancies, placental abruption (the premature separation of the placenta from the uterus) can occur. In addition, PIH can cause prenatal issues such as intrauterine growth restriction (slow fetal growth) and stillbirth.

Severe PIH can lead to serious convulsions and possibly death in the mother and fetus if left untreated. Because of these dangers, the baby may need to be delivered early, before 37 weeks of pregnancy.

How can you know if you have pregnancy-induced hypertension?

The increase in blood pressure levels is commonly used to diagnose PIH, although other symptoms may also be helpful in determining the diagnosis. The following tests may be used to detect pregnancy-induced hypertension:

  • Urine tests.
  • Taking regular weight measurements
  • Measurement of blood pressure
  • Edema is assessed
  • Examine your eyes to see if there are any changes to your retina.
  • Tests of liver and kidney function
  • Clotting tests on the blood

Treatment for hypertension caused by pregnancy:

Your doctor will decide on the best treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension depending on the following factors:

  • Your tolerance for specific medications, treatments, or therapies
  • Your expectations for the disease’s progression
  • The patient’s opinion or preference
  • Pregnancy
  • General health
  • Medical history
  • The severity of the disease

The endgame of this treatment is to keep the problem from getting worse and from leading to subsequent issues. Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) can be treated with the following medications:

  • Relax in bed (either at home or in the hospital may be recommended).
  • Admission to a hospital (as specialized personnel and equipment may be necessary).
  • Sulfate of magnesium (or other antihypertensive medications for PIH).
  • A biophysical profile is a test that combines nonstress testing with ultrasound imaging to examine the fetus.
  • Doppler flow studies are ultrasound techniques that employ sound waves to evaluate blood flow via a blood artery.
  • Urine and blood tests are still being done in the lab (for changes that may signal worsening of PIH).

Preventing hypertension caused by pregnancy

Early detection of women at risk for pregnancy-induced hypertension may help to avoid some of the disease’s sequelae. Education about the warning signs and symptoms is particularly crucial because early detection can help women get treatment and avoid the condition deteriorating.

Summary

Eclampsia is the gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Eclampsia is a type of severe hypertension brought on by pregnancy. As a result of their condition, women with eclampsia have seizures.

Early diagnosis of pregnant women at risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension may assist to prevent some of the disease’s complications.

WRITTEN AND EDITED RESPECTIVELY BY:

Michael Sarfo
Content Creator at Wapomu

Michael Sarfo is a graduate of the University of Ghana, Legon. He is a content creator for enochkabange.com and a writer for Wapomu

Dr. Ehoneah Obed is a registered pharmacist and a member of the Pharmaceutical Society of Ghana. He has a Doctor of Pharmacy degree from Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology and has experience working in a Tertiary hospital as well as various community pharmacies. He is also a software engineer interested in healthcare technologies.

His love for helping others motivates him to create content on an array of topics mostly relating to the health of people and also software engineering content.

He is knowledgeable in digital marketing, content marketing, and a host of other skills that make him versatile enough to uplift any team he joins.

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